1) American Bank Note Company. This firm's name first
came into use in 1855 as a name for Draper, Welsh and Company.
By the merger agreement of 1858, this firm absorbed most of the
other prominent firms of the time and gained a near monopoly of
the security printing business. The American Bank Note Company
was formed in 1858 by the merger of the following seven
Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson,
Toppan, Carpenter & Co.,
Danforth, Perkins & Co.,
Danforth, Perkins & Co.,
Jocelyn, Draper, Welsh & Co.,
Wellstood, Hay & Whiting,
E. Gavit Bonds were prepared for the
Confederacy by this firm in New York, prior to the outbreak of
war. The plates for these bonds were then seized by a U.S.
marshal. Subsequently, more bonds were printed at the New
Orleans branch office headed by Samuel Schmidt.
2) Archer & Daly (Archer & Halpin). This firm was set up
in Richmond, Virginia in 1863. John Archer was an engraver from
the North who had worked for Harper Brothers, the book printers,
as a plate engraver. Joseph Daly is thought to have been a Richmond plasterer of means who put up the money
for the Archer firm in its various forms. However, Paterson
visited Richmond in August 1862 and reported to Secretary
Memminger that Archer was absent at a Virginia spa and that Daly
was in charge of the shop in his absence. Daly, it seems, was
doing some of the Confederate stamps by the stereograph process,
probably the De La Rue 5~ blue stamps with Davis on them.
therefore seem that Dietz to the contrary, Daly was in fact a
printer and engraver, and not merely a financial backer. In 1863
Frederick Halpin had been ignominiously booted out of the
Keatinge and Ball premises in Columbia, South Carolina for
alleged complicity in Blanton Duncan's false accusations against
Edward Keatinge. Halpin then moved to Richmond, where he joined
the Archer firm. He appears to have been a man in his early 60s
who had also been a Northern engraver for Harper Brothers.
This firm produced stamps, notes, and bonds for the
Confederacy until September 1864, when its equipment was seized
for alleged inefficiency. Subsequently, its men and materials
were shipped to Columbia, South Carolina where most of the
workmen took service with Keatinge and Ball. Evans and Cogswell
seem to have been assigned most of the bond plates and printed
all the bonds originally engraved by Archer.
3) John Douglas was an engraver and printer in New
Orleans, Louisiana. He produced three bonds, some government
warrants, and other fiscal paper, not to mention state notes and
private scrip. His one-man shop had a limited productive
capacity, and after the capture of New Orleans on April 24,
1862, he was cut off from further business with the Confederacy.
4) Blanton Duncan was the son of Kentucky Congressman
Garrett Duncan, who moved to Europe in 1861 in order to avoid
having to take sides in the impending conflict. His son was made
of sterner stuff. At 35, he formed the first Confederate
Kentucky regiment as its executive officer (with no previous
military experience). He went with his unit eastward and joined
General Joseph Johnston's forces near Winchester, Virginia. He
was present at First Manassas (Bull Run) where he was mentioned
by General Beauregard in his dispatches. He next went back to
Kentucky to help organize the secession convention (of which he
was a member). While he was thus engaged, he also helped
Secretary Memminger in his search for men and security printing
materials, particularly paper.
1862 he appeared once more in Richmond, Virginia, where he
joined the bar and opened a printing shop. Mary Boykin Chesnut
reported meeting him at a dinner party at this time and found
him quite fascinating. Even at this early time he had trouble
with his workmen, who took off "blue Mondays" for getting drunk
and to seek opportunities for amorous indulgence. After he
appealed for help from the provost marshal. General Winder,
these men were arrested and forced to return to their presses.
By way of thanks to the general, Duncan put his portrait on a
In May 1862
he moved his printing operation to Columbia, South Carolina
where he ruled his workers with a rod of iron and compelled them
to be more efficient. However, his blatant efforts to eliminate
the competition by seizing their supplies and manpower under
pretended military authority got him into major trouble with
state governments (who had contracts with those firms) and with
Secretary Memminger, who had to deal with their vehement
complaints. Among the firms victimized was F. W. Bournemann's
shop in Charleston, which worked for that city and also for the
state of North Carolina. Even the firm of Evans and Cogswell,
with whom Secretary Memminger was well acquainted, and who had
been induced by him to undertake contracts with the government,
suffered from Duncan's depredations.
campaign to monopolize the security printing business even
extended to an effort to corner the ice supply (needed to cool
off printing plates) as well as to the interception of the ink
and paper arriving in Charleston consigned to Keatinge & Ball.
This devious activity was discovered purely by accident, when
Joseph Daniel Pope, a prominent South Carolina lawyer from
Beaufort, who had been the former statewide commissioner for the
war tax and who was in charge of the printers from April 1862 to
April 1863, visited Duncan's premises during his absence.
Conducted on a tour of inspection of the building. Pope
literally stumbled upon the missing materials in Duncan's attic.
while Pope was making this discovery, Duncan was on a flag of
truce ship near Richmond. He was trying to induce a Major Schenk
of the United States Army to become his partner and help him
procure badly needed printing supplies by running them through
the blockade. Schenk reported this proposition to his superiors
under the mistaken impression that something of the sort must
have been going on prior to Duncan's surprise approach. This led
to such a bitter wrangle between the War and Treasury
Departments that Lincoln had to step in and settle the
other annoying habits resulted in the loss of Duncan's
government contracts in early 1863. In May 1862 Duncan had set
up a steam press for printing books and documents, and many
items bear his imprint. He also continued for a few weeks in
1863 as a note contractor for various state and local
governments, most notably those in Louisiana. When his state
contracts were completed, Memminger seized the equipment and
supplies that the government had given to Duncan, and Duncan
later sold out the residue of his business. He rejoined the Army
in Wilmington, North Carolina for the duration of the war. He
was still alive in 1896, when he was reportedly visiting
California during the winters.
George Dunn and Company was formed in 1863. Dunn had come
over to Wilmington aboard the Giraffe in early 1862 as part of
the group of Scottish lithographers hired by Major Benjamin F.
Evans in London during late 1861. His talents and skills at
working without the usual equipment brought him to Secretary
Memminger's attention. He was accordingly encouraged to set up
his own shop, separate from that of the government in Richmond.
He designed some of the "December 2, 1862" $5 note, and later
won contracts to engrave quite a few bonds and call
certificates. He also did some of the late warrants. His limited
printing capacity often compelled him to sublet the printing end
of his business. For example, while he designed and engraved the
March 23, 1863 4% coupon bonds, the bonds were actually printed
by Hoyer & Ludwig, and most of his other work was printed by
Evans & Cogswell. Dunn was, next to Edward Keatinge, without
doubt the best engraver within the Confederacy. He remained in
Richmond and did some private engraving and printing work when
his government contracts permitted. He probably returned to
Britain in early 1865 along with the other printers who had
three-year contracts. The postwar Richmond directories make no
mention of him.
Evans & Cogswell. This Charleston, South Carolina firm was
formed in ISSS-wighiallyunder the style of Walker and Cogswell.
In 1860, James Walker took a back seat as a silent partner and
was replaced by Major Benjamin Evans. The firm was renamed Evans
& Cogswell. Evans went to Europe in late 1861 and at great risk
procured badly needed manpower and supplies.
so, he used the offices of the famous firm of Thomas De La Rue
and Company as his headquarters. He is described in that firm's
history as a large, charming but businesslike man. On his way
back, he had the curious distinction of having no less than
three ships founder beneath him, making him the Jonah of the
Confederacy. His revolver, which he took with him on this trip,
turned up in the 1970s and was sold to a collector. His junior
partner, Harvey Cogswell I, continued in his role as the firm's
general manager. Walker tried to help out (and avoid the draft)
by going to Britain in 1863. Operating under instructions
furnished by Secretary Memminger, he contracted with S. Straker
and Sons for the production of the Chemicograph backs, which
were intended to be used as the new backs for the 1864 note
issue. Unfortunately, the plates were captured while running the
blockade, although Walker himself managed to return safely by
another ship. The firm printed a few bonds starting in late
1861, only to have their materials and personnel seized by
Blanton Duncan in May 1862. Duncan then bought them out, Harvey
Cogswell being under the misapprehension that Duncan was running
a bonafide government establishment and that he was selling his
plant to the government. When Major Evans' men arrived from
Britain with supplies, the firm was started up again, and was
active doing large scale work for the Confederacy from 1862 on.
It printed notes and bonds for state, city and private
corporations, particularly early during the war; it also used
its steam printing press for book and other commercial printing.
Union blockade tightened around Charleston and shells from
Morris Island began to land in the city (one hit the State Bank
building on the corner of Bay and Broad Streets, right next door
to the Evans & Cogswell offices), the firm moved to Columbia.
There it took over Kintsler's Hall, a large, airy, multistory
building, where it continued its operations until the fall of
Columbia to General Sherman in February 1865.
returned to Charleston, where under the resumed name of Walker,
Evans and Cogswell (WECO) it continued in business after the war
despite the loss of much of its equipment in the reported
burning of its Columbia premises in 1865. It was still doing
security printing work early into the 20th century. Ahistory of
WECO was published in 1936. More recently, this firm survived as
an office supply store. In the late 1980s Harvey Cogswell V sold
his plant and then conveyed the trade name to a young couple,
who failed within a year or so in North Charleston.
Geese (originally styled Friederich Giesse), was a
lithographer from Bavaria. He came to America and went to work
in 1859 for Ludwig Hoyer. He moved from Richmond in 1864 and
ended by working for Evans & Cogswell. He engraved one set of
Confederate bonds, which bear his name, for Evans & Cogswell in
1864. After the war, unable for reasons unknown to make a living
as a lithographer, he and his wife ran a grocery store in
Richmond. He is buried in Richmond's Hollywood Cemetery, just to
the right across the street from the Ludwig family plot.
& Ludwig. This firm consisted of two persons, Ludwig Hoyer
and Charles Ludwig. Hoyer was born in 1820 in Bavaria and moved
to Richmond where, by/1860, he was a successful jeweler and real
estate investor. He hired Geese and then Ludwig to work for the
business card pripung operation associated with his jewelry
store. His firm also printed labels for cigar boxes and other
tobacco products. Charles Ludwig, 1829-1874, also came
originally from Bavaria, via Sweden. He had been orphaned at an
early age, but he claimed to have been brought up by an aunt who
was a lady-in-waiting to Eugene de Beauharais's daughter, who
became the queen of Oscar I of Sweden. He learned the
lithographic engraving business, was well educated and came over
to the United States. He married a Culpepper, Virginia woman,
Henrietta Koeckler, had four sons and moved to Richmond, where
he worked for a while for Ritchie & Dunnavant, the
Commonwealth's official printers. He did some bonds and ballots
for them in the 1856- 1859 period. In early 1860, he went to
work for Hoyer.
1861, at the time of the Confederate government's removal from
Montgomery, Alabama to Richmond, the treasury, for lack of
anything better in the way of security printers, contracted with
Hoyer & Ludwig to print the notes and bonds authorized by the
Act of May 16, 1861. Subsequently, the firm also printed notes
and bonds authorized by the Act of August 19, 1861. When not
engaged in that business, the firm printed notes for states such
as Virginia and Florida and a number of local governments in
Virginia. They also did Virginia scrip notes and the occasional
bank note. With the Union attack on Richmond in the spring of
1862, Secretary Memminger decided that the security printers
should be moved to some less vulnerable site. If the capital
should be captured, it would be impossible to move the printers
out with their heavy equipment on short notice. If these plants
were captured, the Confederacy would be deprived of the means to
pay the army or any other government expenses, particularly with
treasury notes. Accordingly, Memminger decreed that all the
printers must move to Columbia, South Carolina.
Ludwig declined to make this move. Both men were closely
associated with Richmond and they may have thought that, despite
Memminger's firm insistence on the point, they could still get
government contracts. Moreover, they were filling orders for
others and they may have thought that that business, which was
not trammeled by Memminger's low margin contracts, would pay
them better. In any case, they did not move and were compelled
to sell their government-supplied equipment and materials to
James T. Paterson of Augusta, Georgia, who moved that portion of
the plant to South Carolina.
departure of the printers to Columbia did not, as Secretary
Memminger had intended, mean an end to the relationship between
Hoyer & Ludwig and the treasury. The firm was still busy
finishing up contracts for coupon and registered bonds, call
certificates and other debt instruments, and Ludwig continued to
do postal warrants for Postmaster General Reagan, who was not
bound by Memminger's rules. Moreover, in August 1862 Ludwig got
a secret contract for one Confederate note of his design (the
Type 46, $ 10). Later he received printing contracts for the $1
and $2 bills, from late 1862 to 1865. Ludwig also did some of
the bond printing that George Dunn could not handle. Then,
ironically, in early 1865, when the Union captured Columbia and
broke up the other printing firms, Hoyer & Ludwig enjoyed a
brief monopoly of the printing contracts. Hoyer also rented some
of his buildings to the Confederacy to use as offices.
war, Hoyer retired from business. His wife had died in 1865 and
he decided to devote himself to his investments and the rearing
of his sole surviving child. In the 1870 census, he was
reportedly living with his 16 year-old daughter and owned over
$100,000 worth of real estate at depressed postwar values,
exclusive of other investments. He was, by the standards of the
day, a wealthy man, and his daughter, whatever her personal
attractions or accomplishments, was an eligible heiress.
Hoyer's retirement, the firm was broken up and Ludwig
established a new firm. Under this arrangement, he worked for
over a year with Edward Keatinge, the erstwhile Confederate
currency engraver, as his junior partner. "The two men produced
a few bonds and some checks under the Ludwig & Keatinge imprint.
When things quieted down and it was once more safe to go north,
Keatinge moved back to New York. Ludwig carried on for a few
more years as a sole proprietor. His efforts to incorporate a
Southern security printing firm fell through, and he died of
renal failure in 1874.
James T. Paterson was a Scottish dentist who moved with his
brother George to Augusta, Georgia in the 1850s. There he set up
his dental office in a smart part of town just opposite, as it
turned out, Augusta's foremost house of assignation. In the
course of his professional activities with his brother, he came
to know a number of prominent Georgians including Vice President
Alexander H. Stephens. Confronted by the Conscription Act in
early 1862 and anxious to avoid the draft as a foreigner,
Paterson entered the security engraving business, taking over
the contracts and much of the manpower and equipment of the
Richmond firm of Hoyer & Ludwig. He set up two shops, one in
Columbia to meet his Confederate contracts and another in his
home town of Augusta to handle an extensive business in state
notes and bonds, local scrip, and book printing. Paterson's
chief function was to take over where Ludwig had left off. In
addition to the note printing, he did a few Confederate
registered bonds and call certificates, as well as warrants.
Duncan and Evans & Cogswell took over all the Confederate coupon
bond printing business.
position was a very uncomfortable one. Hoyer & Ludwig had
off-loaded on him their oldest equipment and least efficient
workmen. He got trapped in the general intrigues among the
printers, which involved bribing workmen to switch employers.
The fact that Paterson was absent, more often than not, in
Augusta, left his Columbia plant in the hands of his foreman. On
at least one occasion, after high words, Edward Keatinge pulled
Paterson's foreman off his horse and gave him a sound thrashing,
protected from the Paterson workmen by a shotgun-wielding Thomas
A. Ball, Keatinge's manager.
lost his Confederate contracts in April 1864 and was replaced as
a printer by Evans & Cogswell. He continued in Augusta with his
general printing business and his state currency and bond work,
chiefly for Mississippi, until 1865. After the war, he invested
his capital in a lumber company near Savannah. When that firm
failed, he committed suicide in 1870.
Ritchie & Dunnavant. This firm and that of Tyier and Allegre
were the public printers for the Commonwealth of Virginia in the
years prior to the Confederate War. They had, in addition to
their public printing, done a few bonds, ballots and the like.
Charles Ludwig, as noted, had worked for them.
war the firm printed some registered bonds for Virginia. In
1864, they appear to have printed the pink paper funding forms.
Later, they prepared the call certificates under the Act of
February 17, 1864. This was the only group of bonds done by
Wagner & Company. Very little is known about this firm,
which was a father and son printing concern in Nashville,
Tennessee. These men came to Blanton Duncan's attention in the
fall of 1861, when Duncan was passing through on his way to the
December 1861 Kentucky secession convention. Duncan bought out
the Wagners, brought them to Richmond with their equipment, and
from the design and workmanship of Duncan's bonds they appear to
have had a major influence on that part of his work. Only one
bond bears their imprint, probably an error which the
egotistical Duncan would have been unlikely to tolerate.
George Wojciechowski. Wojciechowski 'as~Polish lithographer
who worked and subcontracted for Evans & Cogswell. Otherwise, we
know very little about him. He apparentiy~did the engraving work
as opposed to the actual printing, the quality of his work being
considerably lower than that of the Scottisl Lithographers
imported in 1862. His name appears on a number of 1863 bonds.